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Magnetic

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[Abstract]:
Inelectromagnetism,whentwomagnetsormagnetsattractorrepeleachother,orwhenacurrent-carryingwiregeneratesamagneticfieldaroundit,causingthemagneticneedletodeflect,orwhentheclosedcircuitmovestoaninhomogene
In electromagnetism, when two magnets or magnets attract or repel each other, or when a current-carrying wire generates a magnetic field around it, causing the magnetic needle to deflect, or when the closed circuit moves to an inhomogeneous magnetic field, a current appears in the closed circuit. These are all phenomena related to magnetism. Any phenomenon related to magnetism is also related to the magnetic field.
 
There are many types of magnets, which are generally divided into two categories: hard <yong> magnets (magnetic retention is long or permanent) and soft magnets (magnetic in a short time). The magnets we refer to are generally referred to as permanent magnets. . Permanent magnets are divided into two categories:
 
The first major categories are: metal alloy magnets including NdFeB magnets (Nd2Fe14B), AlNiCo magnets, and SmCo magnets, including: 1. NdFeB magnets: It is currently found to have the highest commercial performance. The magnet, known as the magnetic king, has extremely high magnetic properties and its maximum magnetic energy product (BHmax) is more than 10 times higher than that of ferrite. Its mechanical processing performance is also quite good. Operating temperatures up to 200 degrees Celsius. Moreover, its texture is hard, its performance is stable, and it has a good cost performance, so its application is extremely extensive. However, because of its strong chemical activity, it must be treated with a surface coating. (such as Zn, Ni, electrophoresis, passivation, etc.). 2. AlNiCo magnet: An alloy consisting of aluminum, nickel, cobalt, iron and other trace metals. The casting process can be processed into different sizes and shapes, and the processability is very good. Cast AlNiCo permanent magnets have the lowest reversible temperature coefficient and can operate at temperatures above 600 degrees Celsius. AlNiCo permanent magnet products are widely used in a variety of instrumentation and other applications. 3. SmCo is classified into SmCo5 and Sm2Co17 depending on the composition. Its development is limited due to the high price of its materials. Samarium Cobalt (SmCo), as a rare earth permanent magnet, not only has a high magnetic energy product (14-28 MGOe), reliable coercivity and good temperature characteristics. Compared with neodymium iron boron magnets, samarium cobalt magnets are more suitable for working in high temperature environments.
 
The second major category is: Ferrite permanent magnet material (Ferrite), its main raw materials include BaFe12O19 and SrFe12O19. It is made of ceramic technology and has a relatively hard texture. It is a brittle material. Because ferrite magnets have good temperature resistance, low price and moderate performance, they have become the most widely used permanent magnets.
 
In electromagnetism, when two magnets or magnets attract or repel each other, or when a current-carrying wire generates a magnetic field around it, causing the magnetic needle to deflect, or when the closed circuit moves to an inhomogeneous magnetic field, a current appears in the closed circuit. These are all phenomena related to magnetism. Any phenomenon related to magnetism is also related to the magnetic field.
 
Magnetic properties are properties of a substance in response to a magnetic field. Each substance is more or less affected by the magnetic field. Ferromagnetic is the most intense and best known magnetism. Due to the ferromagnetism, magnets or magnets generate magnetic fields. In addition, paramagnetic materials tend to move toward areas with strong magnetic fields, that is, they are attracted by magnetic fields; diamagnetic substances tend to move toward weaker magnetic fields, that is, are rejected by magnetic fields; and some substances interact with magnetic fields. There are more complex relationships, such as the nature of spin glass, antiferromagnetic, and so on. The external magnetic field has a very weak effect on certain substances.
 
The magnetic state of a substance is related to temperature, pressure, external magnetic field, etc., depending on the temperature or other parameters, the substance will show different magnetic properties.